The “Public Attitudes towards the Liberal Script” (PALS) Survey. Conceptual Framework, Implementation, and Data
Heiko Giebler, Lukas Antoine, Rasmus Ollroge, Jürgen Gerhards, Michael Zürn, Johannes Giesecke, Macartan Humphreys
The norms and institutions of liberal democracy, market economy, and open society have become increasingly contested worldwide. Is the rise of illiberal and authoritarian contestations reflected in a decline of citizens’ acceptance of liberal ideas and values? Are these contestations a response to unfulfilled promises, inherent tensions, or other unresolved challenges? The comparative public opinion survey “Public Attitudes towards the Liberal Script” (PALS) provides data that lets scholars address these questions. The goal of PALS is first and foremost to measure attitudes towards what we call the liberal script. PALS was conducted in 26 countries (+50,000 respondents) using CAWI (quota sampling) and CAPI (random probability sampling) modes of data collection. The sample draws from a diverse set of countries to provide a global perspective. Here, we give a comprehensive description of the conceptual framework, content, and methodology of the survey as a background paper for the overall endeavor.